Sector of children in employment, aged 6 to 15

Sector of children in employment, aged 6 to 15
Source: UCW calculations, based on Albania National Child Labour Survey, 2010

5.1% of children aged 5 to 17 in Albania are in child labour. Working children are primarily concentrated in the agriculture sector and complete remunerated family work. Almost 40% of working children are exposed to hazardous conditions in the workplace.

Children’s work is time intensive. Children aged 6 to 15 log an average of 15 hours per week, while older children aged 16 to 17 log an average of 24 hours for week.

More than 2,000 children are living and/or working on the street on a seasonal or transitory basis. More than two thirds of street children are boys.

Albania is a source country for trafficking of men, women, and children. Trafficked persons are susceptible to sex exploitation and forced labour.

Child labour by age group

Source: UCW calculations, based on Albania National Child Labour Survey, 2010



Albania signs, and later ratifies, the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons. The country commits to taking measures against transnational crime.


The Labour Code No. 136/2015 stipulates that children aged 16 to 18 may be hired in light work, defined as work that does not jeopardize the safety, health, nor development of the child. Light work should also not impede the child’s participation in school, vocational training programmes, nor their ability to take advantage of such training.


The Government of Albania implements the Identification and Protection of Children in Street Situation Action Plan, which aims to protect street children from abuse, exploitation, and neglect. The Government also implements the Action Plan for the Social-Economic Reintegration of Women and Girl Victims by providing education and social services to such victims of forced labour and human trafficking.


The government passes the Regulation on Protection of Children at Work, which provides a list of hazardous occupations for children under 18 years old. The government also passes the Albanian National Agenda for Children’s Rights, which aims to support the development and social inclusion of children.


  • Prevent child labour, including children in street situation, through the development of a national study. Integrate child labour in local child protection strategies and plans. Strengthen the capacity of child protection structures. Raise awareness about child labour issues within the business community, particularly within the mining sector.
  • Ensure protection and interventions according to the needs of children at risk of, or involved in, child labour. Map high risk areas to identify children, especially within the mining sector, and refer them to the correct services. Establish local mechanisms for direct assistance, including emergency social services, for children and families at risk of, or involved in, child labour. Improve labour inspection through capacity
    building. Enhance bilateral and regional cooperation around child labour.
  •  Improve law enforcement against child labour. Ensure children’s rights are protected by law enforcement structures through amendments to the Criminal Code and capacity building for police officers, prosecutors, and judges. Improve inter-institutional cooperation and exchange of information around the prosecution of child labour offenses.
  • Decrease social and cultural factors that promote child labour. Inform children, parents, and the public about different forms of child labour, related risks, and assistance options. Include these topics in school and teacher training curricula.
  • Enhance investigation and prosecution. Guide relevant structures to strictly enforce national legislation against trafficking in persons. Legislation should be improved and relevant structures should be trained to enable the ban of all forms of trafficking.
  •  Ensure that victims are protected and assisted. Mobilize identification mechanisms and resources. Strengthen partnerships between the parties responsible for identification and increase resources of the service structures.
  • Raise awareness about trafficking prevention. Efforts should highlight national and international legislation on all forms of trafficking of persons, forced labour for children and adults, child begging, and children in street situation.
  • Improve the coordination of anti-trafficking actions. Take appropriate steps against trafficking, complemented by civil society mechanisms. Strengthen the Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator.


Prevent the economic exploitation of children, including children in street situation.

  • Information and awareness campaigns have been undertaken in all municipalities of the country coordinated by the State Agency for the Rights and Protection of the Child. During 2020 – 2021 due to the situation created by the pandemic caused due to COVID-19, the campaigns were conducted online.

Ensure protection and intervention according to the needs of children at risk or in economic use

  • Protection of children in situations of economic exploitation is the focus of the work of institutions working for the protection of children. According to the reports of the Child Protection Units, during 2020, 255 cases identified in street situations have been managed and for the period January – March 2021, 145 cases have been managed and received protection services.

Increasing the number of successful criminal cases related to the economic exploitation of children, the obligation to work. Protection of children’s rights by law enforcement structures.

  • In order to prevent the economic exploitation of children for work and begging, the Municipality of Tirana has notified and signed in cooperation with the parents of children identified in economic exploitation situations a standard statement, which notifies the legal guardian on legal responsibility in case of child abuse and abuse. There are no official data reported on criminal charges for 2021.

Social and cultural barriers that promote economic exploitation have decreased.

  • In order to prevent the economic exploitation of children for work and begging, the municipalities in which there are children identified in working and economic exploitation situations, have oriented their services directly to these families – such as strengthening parental capacity, housing, employment, ensuring school attendance (online education).

Next steps

  • Increase the number of field teams that work for the identification of children in street situation

  • Training of local professionals that are involved in child protection issues

  • Trainings of field teams about case identification


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“The purpose of the draft action plan is to guarantee the rights and protection of economically exploited children, including children in street situation, through prevention, enhancement of services, and enforcement of legislation.”

Adriana Jaku, Deputy-minister of Health and Social Protection and Alliance 8.7 National Coordinator
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